Chapter 4. Personal Foresight - Becoming an Effective Self-Leader

Health – Five Cyclic Habits for Vitality and Longevity (Vital Cycles)

It’s easy to take our health for granted, but when we don’t have it, everything else suffers. Maintaining our health is thus the first purpose and top priority in our HRVWE model of the five most critical success factors in life. Without a basic level of health, nothing else works. With great health, everything else is so much easier. Our bodies naturally strive to be healthy. True, some of our genes start to work against us in later life, in a process of aging called antagonistic plieotropy, but even then, most of our body’s processes want health, right up to the point of death. The choices we make either help or hinder that natural striving of our biology.  If we have our mental and physical health, we’ve got the greatest gift life offers to each of us. We should be grateful for it every day, and constantly be on guard against losing our most precious asset—a healthy life.

Here’s my current model of the top five habits for maintaining a healthy life. These habits are highly protective of your mental health and abilities first, and your body second. A healthy brain is the best way to a healthy body, via your neuroimmune system, the main controller of your body’s immune function. If you have any concerns about age-associated cognitive impairment as you age, or other more serious degenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, even more than a desire for general health, these five habits should be at the top of your list of things to monitor on a daily basis.

Each habit is a cycle between two fundamentally important states of life. One state is eustress, or good stress, which builds your brain’s and body’s capacity. The other is rebuilding, a recovery state in which we consolidate the gains we made during the good stress phase, allowing us even greater mental and physical capacity in our next cycle. Running these five health capacity building cycles well is the real key to maintaining lifelong vitality and longevity (“vitalongevity”), or health.

Stress isn’t always good. Environments chronic (steady, unrelenting) mental or physical stress are the primary thing that pushes us out of health. The best way we maintain our health is to avoid exposure to toxic, bad stress environments, or better yet, go into them only for very limited times, giving us plenty of time to recover from them.

Above all, we must learn how to build our health with good stress cycles, so we can better handle bad stress, and the unexpected catastrophes that life occasionally brings our way. The distinction between good and bad stress is an evolving art and science. It’s also the key issue that will determine your lifelong health and vitality/capacity/ability, so learn to tell the difference in yourself, day by day.

The five good stress cycles we will discuss are Awareness/Sleeping, Learning/Reflecting, Socializing/Solitude, Moving/Resting, and Fasting/Eating.  The success code for these is ALSMF. A good mnemonic is ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) causes Muscle Fatigue or perhaps more memorable, if you know the details of this terrible affliction, ALS is a MF of a disease.

These five are offered in a suggested order of importance specifically for preventing cortical and hippocampal atrophy (thinning, wasting away, a common problem in unhealthy aging) and more generally, keeping your brain and body both healthy and vital for a very long time.

Let’s look now at these five health-building eustress cycles in more detail.

1. Awareness/Sleeping Cycle.

Being as fully aware, awake, and conscious as you can, moment by moment, is the eustress part of our first and most basic health-building cycle. Many of us sleepwalk through large parts of our days, not thinking hard, and not being fully present. A certain amount of such coasting is healthy but too much of that kind of behavior is squandering an opportunity to be fully aware and awake. Ideally, most of our lives we are either trying to wake up, focus, concentrate, and pay attention to either the world around us or to our own thoughts and feelings, or we are trying to get high-quality sleep. The middle ground, where we are not consciously self aware of our thoughts and feelings or our surroundings, yet we aren’t asleep, usually doesn’t help us.

When you are aware and mindful, both of your own thoughts and the world around you, that awareness stresses your brain in a capacity-building way. Concentrate. Focus. Be conscious of your thoughts and feelings. Meditate daily. Meditation is a special form of focused waking that is excellent for building mental capacity. Even if you are very busy, you can meditate as you fall asleep, at a minimum, so you get at least 5-10 mins of quality meditation a day, if not more. Elise Labbe’s Psychology Moment by Moment, 2011 is an excellent introduction, from a clinical psychologist, to the use of mindfulness techniques to treat anxiety, depression, pain, stress, and other health challenges, and of mindfulness in therapy and self-therapy. Thich Nhat Hanh’s The Miracle of Mindfulness, 1999, and Eckhart Tolle’s The Power of Now, 2004, are both good as well, yet many of these works overclaim as well. Mindfulness is just one important state of being, albeit a very important one. We need other states of mind, including escape, entertainment, altered states, and the ability to regularly contemplate the past and future as well as the present. The Buddhist’s ideal of “denial of the self” is particularly useful for Western egoists, but it is very easy to overdo that too. It’s often the selfish, and those obsessed with a principle, that get things done, creating progress for all of us.

So we need to learn our way to the right balance of all the factors in our success codes, and there are no easy single answers. One of the great frontiers of 21st century medicine is understanding how deeply our mental and physical health are entwined. Our feelings and thoughts deeply impact our immune systems, as the field of mind-body medicine is learning. See Esther Sternberg’s The Balance Within: The Science Connecting Health and Emotions (2001) and Jo Marchant’s Cure: A Journey into the Science of Mind Over Body (2017) for two good books on this key topic. What we think and believe about ourselves, our futures, and our health strategies, both rationally and emotionally, both consciously and unconsciously, has a huge impact on our state of our health. So try to think and feel in ways that not only make you more conscious, of yourself, others, and the world, but make you happy with your life. We discuss happiness codes in the next section. Our consciousness is our greatest gift, yet it’s quite weak and recently evolved. Use it often and it will grow.

The rebuilding and recovery phase of the awareness/sleep cycle is sleep. Sleep is when your brain does all its repair, dreams, and decides what to commit to long term memory. A goal in sleep is to get as high quality sleep as we can. Ideally, we want to wake up fully rested. When we don’t, we are degrading our brains, bit by bit. Learn how to take daily naps if you need them for your brain or body to get back to an alert state. The siesta pattern is the second most popular sleep pattern, and it involves an afternoon nap of twenty to ninety minutes. There is some evidence that this pattern lowers inflammation and is better for the brain. Some days, two or more naps of twenty minutes each may be better for your productivity and overall wakefulness than a nap-free day. Find a quiet place, use eyeshades and earplugs. Your car may be the best place if your office doesn’t have a good nap room. For home, get a good bed and pillow. Go to bed an hour or two earlier if you need to, to get your full eight or nine (or more?) hours. Use eye shades and earplugs if they help. Don’t use bright screens in bed or just before bed, if they make it harder for you to fall asleep (pay attention and decide for yourself). Do whatever you need, to get a deep recovery every night. If you aren’t sleeping well, be sure to do exercise, a hot shower, a sauna, sex, or some other activity that physically tires you out before bed. Be sure to have a quiet dark room, so that your very first sleep phase of the night (Phase IV, deep, dreamless sleep) runs as long as possible. That, and meditation while lying in bed, will get you a long way toward better sleep. Get a sleep tracker if that helps, though I’ve never felt the need for one. Tom Rath’s Eat Move Sleep: How Small Choices Lead to Big Changes (2013) will convince you that eating the right things, exercise, and sleep are foundations to your and your client’s health.

2. Learning/Reflecting Cycle.

Learning, and most especially intense, focused learning, is the eustress part of this cycle. Regular dedicated learning drives brain health, and a healthy brain craves learning time every day. Be aware of yourself learning throughout the day, and remind yourself of what you are learning. Take notes as you learn, either on your smartphone, with an app like Evernote or Google Keep, or on a pocket-sized moleskine that you keep with you.

Using our emotion (our amygdala) and seeing social or intellectual significance in what we are studying are both critical to learning. You want to be in touch with your feelings as you’re learning, and find a way to care strongly about the key ideas and concepts, and imagine ways that they are significant, and to whom. Ideally, you need to be able to take a nonlinear path and variable speed through the material, jumping around, slowing down or speeding up based on significance or complexity. You also need to be able to annotate, recording your own reaction to the material, and you need uninterrupted time and space to visualize what you are learning, and to consider probable, possible, and preferable futures related to it. For details, see Benedict Carey’s How We Learn, 2015, and Dyle and Zakrajsek’s brief The New Science of Learning, 2013.

Also set aside time for dedicated learning under a time limit, whether it’s ten minutes on a break, a half hour at lunch, or an hour in the evening. Give yourself at least an hour or two of dedicated learning time a day if you can. This dedicated time is for interval learning, which is your brain’s version of interval exercise. This is when you have decided to go hard for a very limited time, reading, watching, or doing whatever it is you’ve set up to learn. Ideally your brain will end up tired and quivering from a short, intense learning session, just like your muscles after interval sprints or doing cross training. My best learning sessions have sometimes ended with a mild headache. That’s a good session!

“Read a Book Like a Movie” is my favorite technique for interval learning. This method works great for books, and also applies to articles online, and great idea-dense magazines, like The Economist, BusinessWeekThe Atlantic, Science News, and others. In my experience teaching interval learning, if you use it, you will increase your reading quantity by at least 3X, and for some folks, as much as 50X. See Method Focus – Learning Via Reading in Chapter 10 for details.

As to what else to learn from besides great books, magazines, and online sources, in-person or online conversations with smart folks are key, so have regular social engagements (we discuss socializing as the next health cycle), and be sure to get out of small talk and into the good stuff like your feelings, goals, values, problems, and strategies for success. Audiobooks are nice if you’re stuck in a commute, or doing exercise, and they help you visualize, but we often don’t pause them when we learn something important, and we can’t annotate them, so we retain only a small fraction of relevant story points and details versus reading. Video is a great way to get interested in a topic, but don’t let it take over your visualization ability. Stop your videos often and annotate or mentally summarize your thoughts about them, to make them more interactive. Ebooks are great, but today’s ebooks still unfortunately have some disadvantages over physical books. It is still harder to concentrate on the story with ebooks, easier to be distracted from reading, annotating, and pausing to reflect, and who read them recall significantly less of the structure and details of a story than those who read physical books in the few studies done on them. Annotating them is not yet as easy as using a pen, so keep something open that you can annotate with as you listen, and stop often to annotate and rephrase. I’m looking forward to ebooks that offer recall and testing features after you’ve read a section.

Reflecting is the rebuilding/consolidating/recovery phase of this key health cycle. When you reflect on what you’ve learned, you are literally rebuilding a model of what you’ve learned in your neural networks, ideally in the most useful way for you. Answering questions about what you are learning, as you go through the material, is another good way to reflect. As you’re learning, ask yourself what questions that insight answers. Good use of the Socratic method by either the teacher or the material, will heighten your ability to recall and use what you’ve learned. So will applying what you’ve learned, in problems. Testing is another form of reflection. Low quality test questions simply require you to recall something, as in multiple choice. Higher quality questions make you synthesize, restate, and express your opinion, as in sentence completions, essays, or oral exams. Teaching a summary of what you’ve learned to others is another very effective way to reflect. The last stage of reflection is to be able to predictably recall what you’ve learned. The full learning/reflecting cycle slogan might be: “See one, do one, teach one, recall one.”

There are many strategies for recall. Spaced repetition software like Anki is a great way to recall an amazing number of facts, but it’s largely a strategic mistake to think that we need very accurate recall for most of what we learn, and the more time and brain capacity you devote to recall, the less time and capacity you have to learn and imagine new things. That’s probably why this software has never taken off, except for students getting through tests. There is a benefit to forgetting most of what we learn, which involves a regular developmental pruning of evolutionary possibilities. Good learning involves a continual balance between evo and devo approaches, like nearly everything important in life.

Set aside time for actively reflecting as well. Consider a game of trying to write out five or six key insights from what you’ve just read. If you are learning in an hour or two before bed, your reflection time may be just ten minutes, as you are falling asleep, making yourself recall some of the key elements of what you read. Do it again when you first wake up. If you make reflection as high a priority as learning, you’ll transfer far more of what you learn into your long-term memory, where it can inform, help, and entertain you for the rest of your life. Reviewing your notes about what you’ve previously learned is another kind of active reflection. Like intervals, reviewing is a mentally harder form of reflection, as it reminds you of all the things you’ve forgotten, and forces you to relearn them, restarting a stress/recovery cycle in your mind.

So like intervals, set yourself a time limit for reviewing, which is really re-learning mixed with reflection, and give yourself mental kudos when you do it. If you use a formal system like Getting Things Done, you can reclassify the things you are reviewing into different folders, like Next Actions, or Someday/Maybe, or by topic. In the future, our smartphone AIs will be able to watch where our eyes go, so we’ll know if we’ve reviewed any material, and how many times, and help us play other reviewing games, to make it less difficult. In the meantime, try to review all the notes you’ve taken at least once. As you review, ask yourself what your notetaking says about you, and your interests, passions, and limitations. Through such reflection, you can better understand yourself.

3. Socializing/Solitude Cycle.

Being social, relating in realtime to others, using your emotions and empathy and your rational thoughts, is the eustress part of this health-building cycle After quality waking/sleeping and daily learning, regular social engagement may be the third most important way of keeping your brain healthy and strong.

Recall the famous Nun Study of Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease (1986-Present). The nuns who were always learning new things, and were socially engaged, throughout their life, had the lowest diagnoses of Alzheimer’s later in life. Some of the more learning- and socially-oriented nun’s brains were often riddled with Alzheimer’s plaques on autopsy, but that was not apparent in advance. Those nuns were always forming new connections, learning and relearning things that they were losing. Because they were social, they had many emotional reasons to learn, relearn, and care, about themselves, others, and the world.

So be social, and not just with folks who it is easy to be social with. Stay in contact with “difficult” people, both in your family and in the world. Those folks need you the most. Balance such folks out with a larger number of nurturing friends, however. Keep your social activities good stress, not chronic stress. Limit the time you spend with toxic people. But spend a little time with them on a regular, cyclic basis. Over time, you’ll become an interpersonal communication ju-jitsu master, able to deflect their baits and barbs, so they roll off like water on a duck’s back. You’ll also be able to give them tough love, and the honest feedback they need. They’ll be better off for your caring company, and you’ll get socially healthier as a result.

Don’t forget to regularly withdraw into solitude and quietness too. Solitude is the other critical half of this health-building cycle. Everyone needs their own alone time, preferably every day. Sometimes you want it for several days in a row. Not just for learning, which can be done socially. But for creating, on your own. If you don’t get enough solo time, you won’t be able to reflect on how to be better, more intentional, authentic, and present socially the next time. For more on the benefits of withdrawing, read Susan Cain’s excellent Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking, 2013. Ideally, we are all extroverts and introverts on a daily or weekly cycle.

4. Moving/Resting Cycle.

Exercise is the eustress part of this cycle. Our bodies are made to move, and after being awake and fasting, our body craves movement on a daily basis, then it needs quality rest and nutrition to rebuild itself.

Exercise at least three to five days a week (a day or two off a week allows good recovery), doing at least 20 mins of aerobic, sweating exercise. Folks who have at least one copy of the Apo e4 gene, the ancestral allele, which is up to 40% in some populations, should be doing aerobic exercise at least 40-60 total minutes a day (either in one session/day or in two or three shorter sessions of at least 20 mins each), ideally almost every day of the week.

Apo e4 carriers need to realize that they have a gene that will hurt their brain and body in later life, unless they exercise and fast at levels that our ancestors did. They are the “canaries in a coal mine” who are first to get hurt by falling away from ideal health patterns, and so they help us all understand what those best patterns are. See my article The Apo e4 Gene and Your Alzheimer’s Risk: What You Should Know, for more details.

Low-impact running, jogging, or fast strenous hiking is the easiest and most effective way to get aerobic exercise. Consider music or podcasts while yo run, if that helps with your motivation. Alternatively, get an in-home elliptical, Nordic Track machine, rower, cycle, stair climber, or treadmill, which will allow you to watch videos or listen to podcasts while you exercise.   If you run, be sure to do forefoot running (taking off and landing on the front of your feet) to strengthen your feet, and prevent injuries. Read Chris McDougall’s Born to Run, 2011, if you need inspiration to run. Remember that getting mild injuries from movement, mild enough that your body needs to recover from them in the days in between,  is far better than getting no injuries.

Your body is designed to be stressed and to rebuild itself after stress. Swimming is also tremendously good for you. Whenever you can handle it, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is the most helpful exercise you can do. It won’t reduce your waistline (that’s what fasting is for) but HIIT is the fastest way to build your peak power, VO2 max, endurance, and even immune function, according to studies.

A 25 minute HIIT session, of 10 seconds to 4 minutes of maximum or near-maximum effort, followed by two to five times as long for recovery, will leave your arms and legs weak, and you’ll feel exhausted. But after you recover, your heart and muscles will be stronger, and you’ll be able to go longer periods in anything before your energy starts to flag. Read Loehr and Schwartz’s The Power of Full Engagement (2005) for a great intro to the value of short stress/recovery cycles. The great thing is that intervals take no more time than regular exercise. They just fit in more eustress/recovery cycles in the same time period. That’s why they’re so good for you. Most people can’t do intervals every day, as they are a mentally harder form of exercise, but their mental difficulty also makes them mentally good for you, whenever you overcome the desire to avoid them. Make sure at least one day a week of your exercise involves intervals of some length, and congratulate yourself a little bit for doing them, when everyone else usually avoids them.

Resting daily, in a quality way, is just as important as exercise. Make sure to get good, deep rests and good post-exercise nutrition between your daily exercise sessions, and perhaps short naps after exercise, if it has been intense. If you sit in a chair all day for work, switch it up with a stability ball, or a standing desk, and take movement breaks every thirty minutes to an hour. Sitting is a form of resting, so move in between rests. Stretching before and after exercise is another great way to ensure you get a quality moving and resting cycle. Both yoga and hot yoga offer excellent forms of moving/resting cycles. Like meditation, yoga is particularly excellent for pushing you into states of deep rest. A daily sauna where you sweat is another powerful form of exercise. Think of it as a light form of aerobic exercise, with same blood flow benefits for your brain, but not for your heart (unless you do steps or cycle inside the sauna, as some athletes do). A 2016 Finnish study showed that a sauna for 10+ minutes, hot and humid enough to make you sweat, at least four times a week, will reduce your Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s risk by 66%. Get a home infrared sauna if you can (they start at $1000 at Home Depot), so you can sauna every morning before your daily shower. You can read or watch something interesting on a tablet while you sauna.

5. Fasting/Eating Cycle.

Fasting is the eustress part of the fasting/eating cycle. Fasting is a time when your body is repairing and resting, and all of us do it every day, at least when we are sleeping. For most of the entire two million years of our humanity, we had to go without food for a day or two every so often. That’s why we store 15X more energy in fat in our bodies, by contrast to our other energy store, glycogen. Each of us could fast for three weeks straight, on average, if we had to. That’s how much energy the average person carries with them in fat at all times. People who are a hundred pounds overweight could easily and safely fast for four months straight, drinking just water while their cells eat their body fat the whole time. This happens regularly at many fasting clinics around the world. Current research is showing that regularly burning small amounts of our body’s stored fat for energy, a state called ketosis, is excellent for the brain, and for the body as well. When we fast, our body turns on repair genes, and generates growth hormones. It also starts eating all kinds of cellular junk, in a health-building process called autophagy (“self-eating”). The good stress of fasting pushes our metabolism into a lean-burning and repairing state. Unfortunately, most developed world people no longer burn their fat. They’ve been hoodwinked by our consumer culture into eating three big meals a day, and they eat at the first twinge of hunger, so we have an epidemic of obesity and now juvenile diabetes in the developed world.

The first step toward getting back to an healthy weight is not changing your diet, but relearning how to not eat for short periods of time. You could even eat sugary crap when you do eat, and as long as you fast daily, your insulin resistance would go away, as fasting studies show. You certainly do want a a low-sugar, mostly plant-based diet when you eat (we’ll discuss that next) but it’s much more important to your mental and physical health to be able to not eat external food, and instead eat your body’s fat on a regular basis. When you are fasting, you can drink any no-calorie beverages (coffee, sparking water, iced tea, even diet soda if you find the fake sugar is comforting). You can even chew a few sticks of sugarless gum, but the key is you consume very little to no outside calories. You are teaching your body to eat its own stores of energy, first glycogen, then fat. You’re also teaching it how to optimize its metabolism, and give itself regular energy. If you are over 20 pounds overweight, start with Julian Whitaker’s The Mini-Fast Diet, 2013, which teaches you how to skip breakfast every day and take a short walk instead. Once you’re back within 20 pounds of your lean weight, start doing a few longer fasts, days where you eat for only five or six hours during the day instead. David Wilson’s Intermittent Fasting (2016) is a great introduction to the various methods. Find an intermittent fasting method that works well for you. One of the most powerful routines is to not eat for 12-19+ hour stretches, at least three times a week. After a few months of this you’ll be ready for the deep health benefits of two to three day fasts, once a year to once a month. Joel Furhman’s Fasting and Eating for Health, 1998, and the WeFast community, are both excellent places to learn more. After two and a half days of fasting, your body reboots its immune system, and your hippocampus produces new stem cells, greatly improving your memory and health. Doing this at least once a year is ideal.

Eating the right things is the rebuilding phase of the fasting/eating cycle. Your body uses that nutrition to build a better you. Dr. Michael Greger’s How Not to Die, 2015 is a great first source for what to eat. For general brain health, you want a high good fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate, mostly plant-based diet. In addition to regular short fasts, this will minimize unnecessary protein and carbs, and general brain and body inflammation over your life.

Regarding good fats, we know that PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and to a lesser extent MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids, are the most beneficial for reducing inflammation, which is especially important for folks with the Apo e4 allele. Stay away from both inflammation-causing saturated fats and trans fats, which are made by too much processing of food.

So look at nutrition labels, and try not to eat foods where the Polyunsaturated Fat + Monounsatured Fat over Saturated Fat ratio, gram for gram, is less than 3:1. Stay away from foods with trans fats entirely. Forget the percentages on each label, they are meaningless standards. Just look at the gram ratios. Most things on typical plant-based good fats lists, except for coconut anything (milk, oil, butter), which is still often mistakenly recommended, are quite good for you.

For example, almonds are a particularly great food (9:1), so are walnuts (9:1), peanuts (6:1), and most other nuts. Good-fat veggies like avocados (5.4:1) are great. So is olive oil (6:1) and most plant oils. Coconut milk, butter and oil (1:12, ouch!) are unhealthy foods that you should minimize. So are hydrogenated oils like palm and soy oil. Butter is not that good at 2:1, and it typically contains trans fats as well. A high PUFA+MUFA margarine like Earth Balance (3.6:1) is a better fat source than butter, even though it is more processed. So read the Nutrition Facts label.

crackerswithgoodfatratioHere are some crackers, for example, with a reasonably good Poly + Mono over Saturated fat ratio (3.5:1). You don’t need to always avoid crackers, or carbs. Books like Wheat Belly (2014) are great helps in getting the average American off of majority carb diets, but people often take these diets too far.

Just make sure your carbs are a lower percentage of your calories than your protein, which in turn is a lower percentage of your calories than your fats, eat mostly good fats and mostly plant-based and minimally processed food, and you’ll be fine. So a bean dip, hummus, avocado or a nut butter with your crackers will keep you where you want to be.

The Paleolithic diet is a good step away from the traditional American diet, as it avoids high carbs (most Americans eat far too much bread and pasta) and seeks to recreate the ancestral food supply conditions for which we evolved. But the problem with Paleo is that most practitioners typically recommend eating a lot more meat each week than humans would have had access to for most of the last two million years. Paleo meat eaters eat lots of meat because it tastes good and is a super nutrient dense food, but they drive their systems far harder than they should, and get significantly more cancer, heart disease, and degenerative diseases in late adulthood as a result.

You don’t need to eat meat more than once or twice a week, in small portions, to get all its good vitamins and nutrients. For your meat, consider being mainly Piscetarian, and staying with good fat, high PUFA fish like salmon, tuna, and mackerel. Sure, steak and hamburgers taste great. But there’s also lots of evidence that red meat is bad for you, and you’re killing a global-warming-causing, big-brained animal to get that meat, which should also give you some environmental and ethical issues. So switch to fish, which is now available everywhere, and eat it in moderation.

Finally, supplement daily with a few key inflammation-reducing supplements, like micellar curcumin, fish oil, vitamin E, and multivitamin. Of all of these, micellar curcumin, which is tremendously helpful for reducing brain and body inflammation, is probably the single most important daily supplement we all can take to improve our vitality and longevity. See my article, Curcumin: A Powerful Brain Protection Supplement, for more.

What about food intolerances and allergies, and tests to uncover them? Pharmacies and naturopaths are happy to sell you IgG-based intolerance tests, like Hemocode, but there’s no good science behind any antibody test. As Scott Gavura says in IgG Food Intolerance Tests: What Does the Science Say?, at, 2012, there’s no evidence that higher IgG in your blood against any particular food means you should cut it out of your diet, or even that it causes inflammation. Skin prick testing is probably the best test for allergies, but people often misinterpret the results to mean to stay away from the weal-causing food forever. See below for why that’s almost always a bad idea.

Most intolerances are either temporary things, as our immune system is learning, or they are simply in our minds. The best approach, if you suspect an intolerance, is to simply try eliminating and reintroducing individual foods, in small doses at first, and to carefully note your symptoms. Typically, your body wasn’t reacting to the food, but to a contaminant, or to some other associated stress. Or if it was, it was reacting because of an improper association it made between that food and a dangerous past invader, like a prior infectious agent. Eating the food again, in small doses, will usually retrain your body out of the improper past association. Only repeated careful exposures will tell you if you have a real and enduring intolerance. Your immune system is a learning system, in many ways like your brain. It will typically retrain itself via healthy eustress cycles of elimination and challenge, just like everything else in your body. So keep cycling and challenging it.

Both lactose and gluten intolerance have a genetic basis, and most of those may be lifelong. But genetically-based intolerances affect a small fraction of our society, and usually with far less extreme symptoms than we fear. Peanut allergies also likely have a genetic component, though we are still figuring out that science. But even with things like peanut allergies, some American physicians groups offer idiotic statistics like it is “estimated to affect 1-2% of children,” and “often is severe and lifelong.” I call BS on that position. This number will prove to be a much smaller fraction (actual numbers are presently unknown), only a handful of kids so far have been at risk of anaphylactic shock, and we call peanut, egg, shellfish and other allergies “lifelong” simply because very few physicians or their patients take the effort or want the discomfort of training them away once they are diagnosed with them. Instead, we run away from them, which makes our immune systems weaker and more dysregulated as a result. But when we run away from allergies or vaccines, or raise our kids in antiseptic environments, rather than playing in the dirt, we just make weaker kids. As a forewarned parent, you don’t have to make that mistake.

As Dr. Andrew Weil says, the best intolerance test for any food isn’t even a skin test, it is simply to eliminate each suspect food, one by one, then do a challenge, over several cycles, see if it continues to reliably set off a reaction. If it does, don’t stay away from that food forever. That will just keep your immune system likely to overreact in the future. Instead, under your physician’s guidance, try the offending food later, in a much smaller dose, and see if your body can learn that it’s safe. It usually will, via a set of ancient physiological pathways called immune tolerance.

Of course, your physician will recommend extra care in immune system retraining when you are dealing with kids, elderly, the sick, and others with underdeveloped, frail or compromised immune systems. So use common sense. But remember: If your child gets a welt under their skin in an allergy skin prick test from peanuts, don’t ask your school to ban peanuts, as we’ve seen in the various food banning hysterias that have swept American schools in recent decades. The smart thing to do, as all the evidence indicates, to introduce “suspect” and “dangerous” foods like peanuts in small doses, as early in childhood as your pediatrician will allow. It will take a while for our modern, comfort-oriented, fear-driven society to recognize these facts, but the evidence, and personal sims, will eventually take us there. In the meantime, for those wanting to use food to build their immune system and reduce allergies and autoimmune dysfunction, read Joel Fuhrman’s Super Immunity, 2013.

It’s easy to obsess about what we eat, causing unnecessary mental stress. Eat simply, and in moderation, and remember that the eating is a rebuilding phase. We don’t eat to live, or live to eat. Rather, eating is just one of several vital cycles that keeps us healthy. So put eating in its proper place. It should be pleasurable and social and healthy, but don’t obsess over your food, and be sure to fast every day as well. Make health, not eating, the center of your life.

I hope to one day write a very brief book titled Vital Cycles: Awareness/Sleep, Learn/Reflect, Socialize/Solitude, Move/Rest, Fast/Eat: Five Key Habits for a Long and Healthy Life, to offer my take on how paying attention to all our eustress cycles is the most powerful way to have vital and long lives. In my view, good health starts with getting high quality versions of both states in each of these vital cycles.

It’s pretty clear that any healthy habits we find valuable are going to be vastly better managed in the future. As our personal sims, smart agents and wearable and implantable sensors improve over the next two decades, we’ll enter an era of agent-guided preventive healthcare. Our health sims will know our current physical health status, and nudge us into behaviors, minute by minute, that help us eliminate chronic stress, engage daily in good stress (eustress), and get us to deeply recover from every challenge. The best of tomorrow’s health agents will even monitor our mental health, recording our conversations and guiding us in how to speak better, moment by moment. Agents will help us improve our ability to play and our sense of humor. They’ll help us review particularly poor communication episodes, right after they happen, and we’ll learn how to communicate nonviolently, improve our relationships, and raise our children better.

Some people, particularly older ones, will be creeped out by this level of intimacy with their machines, and keep those mental health functions turned off, at least at first. But most of the youth will dive right in, and they will reap faster benefits as a result. These systems will have risks of abuse, particularly in their early versions, but over the long term I see them a deeply positive development for human health.

By such methods, tomorrow’s medicine is very likely to give all of us another decade or two of vital, healthy life. Our average age of death in 2050 might be 100, or very near it. Some time this century, AI will be smart enough to push biological life beyond 100, but as we say in Chapter 2, the vast majority of us aren’t likely to want to be biological once AI gets that smart, for a host of reasons. There are just too many ways that biology eventually falls apart, and it’s just too slow and limited for all the things we want to do, as we continue to grow and adapt.

In the meantime, however, I’m looking forward to a more healthy future for all of us.